Mots-clés

Co-auteurs

Identifiants chercheur

Widget extérieur

Nombre de documents

54

CV T GALLI


Thierry Galli, Ph.D.

Membrane Traffic in Health And Disease

INSERM ERL U950, CNRS/Univ Paris-Diderot UMR7592 Institut Jacques Monod

Paris, France

thierry.galli@inserm.fr

 

Thierry Galli is a former student of Ecole Normale Supérieure of Saint-Cloud/Lyon. He received his BSc in Biochemistry at the University Pierre and Marie Curie, Paris, in 1988, and his PhD under the supervision of Prof. Jacques Glowinski at the Collège de France and the University Pierre and Marie Curie, Paris, in 1992. He then moved to the USA to carry out postdoctoral research in Prof. Pietro De Camilli's laboratory at Yale University School of Medicine. There he worked on the molecular mechanism of regulated and constitutive exocytosis. In 1995, he took his first research appointment at the French National Institute of Health (INSERM) and the Curie Institute in the laboratory of Prof. Daniel Louvard, and in 2001 he was recruited as Research Director of the French National Institute of Health at the Fer-à-Moulin Institute, Paris. In 2005, he was appointed as a Group Leader at the Jacques Monod Institute, Paris. His research focuses on the role of SNARE proteins in cancer and neuronal cell differentiation, with particular emphasis on the tetanus neurotoxin-sensitive routes, mediated by cellubrevin/VAMP3 and synaptobrevin/VAMP1,2, the tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive routes mediated by TI-VAMP/VAMP7 and ER-plasma membrane contact sites regulated by Sec22b.

Thierry Galli is Editor-in-Chief of Biology of the Cell and a member of the Faculty of 1000, and the Editorial Board of the Journal of Biological Chemistry. He was President of the Society for Biology of the Cell – France (SBCF) in 2012-2013. He is Director of the multi-agency thematic institute institute (ITMO) of Cell Biology, Development and Evolution and a member of the directorship of the French National Institute of Health. He was recently appointed head of the Psychiatry and Neuroscience Center. He received the Grand Prix à orientation fondamentale Robert Debré for medical research in 2011and  Rachel, Ajzen et Léon IAGOLNITZER Prize of Fondation Pour la Recherche Médicale in 2015.

Full CV: http://cvscience.aviesan.fr/cv/196/thierry-galli

SELECTION OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF A TOTAL OF >120 SINCE 1990

  1. Burgo, A., E. Sotirakis, M.C. Simmler, A. Verraes, C. Chamot, J.C. Simpson, L. Lanzetti, V. Proux-Gillardeaux, and T. Galli. 2009. Role of Varp, a Rab21 exchange factor and TI-VAMP/VAMP7 partner, in neurite growth. EMBO reports. 10:1117-1124.
  2. Burgo A.,Proux-Gillardeaux, V., Sotirakis, E., Bun, P., Casano,A., Verraes, A., Liem, R., Formstecher, E.,  Coppey, M. Galli, T. (2012). A molecular network for the transport of the TI-VAMP/VAMP7 vesicles from cell center to periphery. Developmental Cell, 23:166–180.
  3. Danglot, L., K. Zylbersztejn, M. Petkovic, M. Gauberti, H. Meziane, R. Combe, M.F. Champy, M.C. Birling, G. Pavlovic, J.C. Bizot, F. Trovero, F. Della Ragione, V. Proux-Gillardeaux, T. Sorg, D. Vivien, M. D'Esposito, and T. Galli. 2012. Absence of TI-VAMP/Vamp7 Leads to Increased Anxiety in Mice. J Neurosci. 32:1962-1968.
  4. Larghi P, Williamson DJ, Carpier JM, Dogniaux S, Chemin K, Bohineust A, Danglot L, Gaus K, Galli T§, Hivroz C§. (2013) VAMP7 controls T cell activation by regulating the recruitment and phosphorylation of vesicular Lat at TCR-activation sites. Nat Immunol. doi: 10.1038/ni.2609. § co-senior authors.
  5. Petkovic M, Jemaiel A, Daste F, Specht CG, Izeddin I, Vorkel D, Verbavatz JM, Darzacq X, Triller A, Pfenninger KH, Tareste D, Jackson CL, Galli T. The SNARE Sec22b has a non-fusogenic function in plasma membrane expansion. Nat Cell Biol, 16(5):434-444. doi: 10.1038/ncb2937.
  6. Proux-Gillardeaux V., Gavard J., Irinopoulou I., Mège R.-M., and T. Galli. (2005) Tetanus neurotoxin-mediated cleavage of cellubrevin impairs epithelial cell migration and integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA102:6362-6367.
  7. Scheuber, A., R. Rudge, L. Danglot, G. Raposo, T. Binz, J.C. Poncer, and T. Galli. 2006. Loss of AP-3 function affects spontaneous and evoked release at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:16562-16567.
  8. Zylbersztejn, K., M. Petkovic, A. Burgo, M. Deck, S. Garel, S. Marcos, E. Bloch-Gallego, F. Nothias, G. Serini, D. Bagnard, T. Binz, and T. Galli. 2012. The vesicular SNARE Synaptobrevin is required for Semaphorin 3A axonal repulsion. The Journal of Cell Biology. 196:37-46.

Research Interests: Molecular mechanisms of nerve cell development; molecular mechanisms of synaptic transmitter release; SNARE proteins; molecular and cellular basis of neuropsychiatric diseases, secretory mechanisms in cancer. [h-index 40, more than 5500 citations]


Article dans une revue52 documents

  • Alessandra Gallo, Christian Vannier, Thierry Galli. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Plasma Membrane Associations: Structures and Functions.. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology, Annual Reviews, 2016, 32 (1), <10.1146/annurev-cellbio-111315-125024>. <hal-01372725>
  • Debapriya Ghosh, Silvia Pinto, Lydia Danglot, Ine Vandewauw, Andrei Segal, et al.. VAMP7 regulates constitutive membrane incorporation of the cold-activated channel TRPM8. Nature Communications, Nature Publishing Group, 2016, 7, pp.10489. <10.1038/ncomms10489>. <hal-01291463>
  • José Ignacio Wojnacki Fonseca, Thierry Galli. Membrane traffic during axon development.. Developmental Neurobiology, Wiley, 2016, <10.1002/dneu.22390>. <hal-01307633>
  • Stefan Sikorra, Christa Litschko, Carina Müller, Nadine Thiel, Thierry Galli, et al.. Identification and Characterization of Botulinum Neurotoxin A Substrate Binding Pockets and Their Re-Engineering for Human SNAP-23. Molecular biology today : the online journal of molecular biology, Caister Academic Press, 2016, 428 (2), <10.1016/j.jmb.2015.10.024>. <hal-01269586>
  • Giulia Chiaruttini, Giulia m. Piperno, Mabel Jouve, Francesca De nardi, Paola Larghi, et al.. The SNARE VAMP7 Regulates Exocytic Trafficking of Interleukin-12 in Dendritic Cells. Cell Reports , Elsevier Inc, 2016, 14 (11), pp.2624 - 2636. <10.1016/j.celrep.2016.02.055>. <hal-01400873>
  • María-Paz Marzolo, Victor Faundez, Thierry Galli. EMBO workshop al fin del mundo: a meeting on membrane trafficking and its implication for polarity and diseases.. Biology of the Cell, Wiley, 2015, 107 (7), pp.245-8. <10.1111/boc.201570100>. <hal-01234182>
  • Debapriya Ghosh, Silvia Pinto, Lydia Danglot, Ine Vandewauw, Andrei Segal, et al.. VAMP7 regulates constitutive membrane incorporation of the cold-activated channel TRPM8.. Nature Communications, Nature Publishing Group, 2015, 7, pp.10489. <10.1038/ncomms10489>. <hal-01305594>
  • Diana Molino, Sébastien Nola, Sin Man Lam, Agathe Verraes, Véronique Proux-Gillardeaux, et al.. Role of tetanus neurotoxin insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein in membrane domains transport and homeostasis. Cellular Logistics, 2015, 5 (1), pp.e1025182. <10.1080/21592799.2015.1025182>. <hal-01234325>
  • Melissa Barber, Yoko Arai, Yoshihiro Morishita, Lisa Vigier, Frédéric Causeret, et al.. Migration Speed of Cajal-Retzius Cells Modulated by Vesicular Trafficking Controls the Size of Higher-Order Cortical Areas.. Current Biology - CB, Elsevier, 2015, 25 (19), pp.2466-78. <10.1016/j.cub.2015.08.028>. <hal-01266802>
  • Aurelia Kuster, Sebastien Nola, Florent Dingli, Barbara Vacca, Christian Gauchy, et al.. The Q-soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor (Q-SNARE) SNAP-47 Regulates Trafficking of Selected Vesicle-associated Membrane Proteins (VAMPs).. Journal of Biological Chemistry, American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2015, 290 (47), pp.28056-69. <10.1074/jbc.M115.666362>. <hal-01266391>
  • Secil Koseoglu, Christian G Peters, Jennifer L Fitch-Tewfik, Omozuanvbo Aisiku, Lydia Danglot, et al.. VAMP-7 links granule exocytosis to actin reorganization during platelet activation.. Blood, American Society of Hematology, 2015, 126 (5), pp.651-60. <10.1182/blood-2014-12-618744>. <hal-01221712>
  • Maja Petkovic, Aymen Jemaiel, Frédéric Daste, Christian G Specht, Ignacio Izeddin, et al.. The SNARE Sec22b has a non-fusogenic function in plasma membrane expansion.. Nature Cell Biology, Nature Publishing Group, 2014, 16 (5), pp.434-44. <10.1038/ncb2937>. <hal-00993498>
  • Diana Molino, Elisabeth Van Der Giessen, Lionel Gissot, Kian Hematy, Jessica Marion, et al.. Inhibition of very long acyl chain sphingolipid synthesis modifies membrane dynamics during plant cytokinesis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, Elsevier, 2014, 1841 (10), pp.1422-1430. <10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.06.014>. <hal-01204151>
  • Diana Molino, Thierry Galli. Biogenesis and transport of membrane domains-potential implications in brain pathologies.. Biochimie, Elsevier, 2013, epub ahead of print. <10.1016/j.biochi.2013.09.014>. <hal-00880086>
  • Andrea Burgo, Véronique Proux-Gillardeaux, Emmanuel Sotirakis, Philippe Bun, Alessandra Casano, et al.. A molecular network for the transport of the TI-VAMP/VAMP7 vesicles from cell center to periphery.. Developmental Cell, Elsevier, 2012, 23 (1), pp.166-80. <10.1016/j.devcel.2012.04.019>. <hal-00764157>
  • Lydia Danglot, Thomas Freret, Nicolas Le Roux, Nicolas Narboux Nême, Andrea Burgo, et al.. Vezatin is essential for dendritic spine morphogenesis and functional synaptic maturation.. Journal of Neuroscience, Society for Neuroscience, 2012, 32 (26), pp.9007-22. <10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3084-11.2012>. <hal-00776396>
  • Lydia Danglot, Thomas Freret, Nicolas Le Roux, Nicolas Narboux-Nême, Andrea Burgo, et al.. Vezatin Is Essential for Dendritic Spine Morphogenesis and Functional Synaptic Maturation. Journal of Neuroscience, Society for Neuroscience, 2012, pp.9007-9022. <10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3084-11.2012>. <hal-00867051>
  • Kathleen Zylbersztejn, Maja Petkovic, Andrea Burgo, Marie Deck, Sonia Garel, et al.. The vesicular SNARE Synaptobrevin is required for Semaphorin 3A axonal repulsion.. Journal of Cell Biology, Rockefeller University Press, 2012, 196 (1), pp.37-46. <10.1083/jcb.201106113>. <hal-00665284>
  • Lydia Danglot, Kathleen Zylbersztejn, Maja Petkovic, Maxime Gauberti, Hamid Meziane, et al.. Absence of TI-VAMP/Vamp7 leads to increased anxiety in mice.. Journal of Neuroscience, Society for Neuroscience, 2012, 32 (6), pp.1962-8. <10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4436-11.2012>. <hal-00786430>
  • Frédéric Cassé, Isabelle Bardou, Lydia Danglot, Aurélien Briens, Axel Montagne, et al.. Glutamate controls tPA recycling by astrocytes, which in turn influences glutamatergic signals.. Journal of Neuroscience, Society for Neuroscience, 2012, 32 (15), pp.5186-99. <10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5296-11.2012>. <hal-00786439>
  • Kathleen Zylbersztejn, Thierry Galli. Vesicular traffic in cell navigation.. FEBS Journal, Wiley, 2011, epub ahead of print. <10.1111/j.1742-4658.2011.08168.x>. <hal-00606053>
  • Claudia Verderio, Cinzia Cagnoli, Matteo Bergami, Maura Francolini, Ursula Schenk, et al.. TI-VAMP/VAMP7 is the SNARE of secretory lysosomes contributing to ATP secretion from astrocytes.. Biology of the Cell, Wiley, 2011, epub ahead of print. <10.1111/boc.201100070>. <hal-00665303>
  • Anke Feldmann, Jesa Amphornrat, Madeleine Schönherr, Christine Winterstein, Wiebke Möbius, et al.. Transport of the major myelin proteolipid protein is directed by VAMP3 and VAMP7.. Journal of Neuroscience, Society for Neuroscience, 2011, 31 (15), pp.5659-72. <10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6638-10.2011>. <hal-00606080>
  • Claire Ribrault, Jürgen Reingruber, Maja Petkovic, Thierry Galli, Noam E Ziv, et al.. Syntaxin1A Lateral Diffusion Reveals Transient and Local SNARE Interactions.. Journal of Neuroscience, Society for Neuroscience, 2011, 31 (48), pp.17590-17602. <10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4065-11.2011>. <hal-00658260>
  • Lydia Danglot, Mathilde Chaineau, Maxime Dahan, Marie-Claude Gendron, Nicole Boggetto, et al.. Role of TI-VAMP and CD82 in EGFR cell-surface dynamics and signaling.. Journal of Cell Science, Company of Biologists, 2010, 123 (Pt 5), pp.723-35. <10.1242/jcs.062497>. <hal-00486387>
  • Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova, Andrea Burgo, Thierry Galli, David Holcman. Quantifying neurite growth mediated by interactions among secretory vesicles, microtubules, and actin networks.. Biophysical Journal, Biophysical Society, 2009, 96 (3), pp.840-57. <10.1016/j.bpj.2008.10.036>. <hal-00503015>
  • Andrea Burgo, Emmanuel Sotirakis, Marie-Christine Simmler, Agathe Verraes, Christophe Chamot, et al.. Role of Varp, a Rab21 exchange factor and TI-VAMP/VAMP7 partner, in neurite growth.. EMBO Reports, EMBO Press, 2009, 10 (10), pp.1117-24. <10.1038/embor.2009.186>. <hal-00441596>
  • Mathilde Chaineau, Lydia Danglot, Thierry Galli. Multiple roles of the vesicular-SNARE TI-VAMP in post-Golgi and endosomal trafficking.. FEBS Letters, Wiley, 2009, 583 (23), pp.3817-26. <10.1016/j.febslet.2009.10.026>. <hal-00441621>
  • Catarina Brito, Lydia Danglot, Thierry Galli, Júlia Costa. Subcellular localization of the carbohydrate Lewisx adhesion structure in hippocampus cell cultures.. Brain Research, Elsevier, 2009, 1287, pp.39-46. <10.1016/j.brainres.2009.06.075>. <hal-00430024>
  • Hiroshi Yamada, Sergi Padilla-Parra, Sun-Joo Park, Toshiki Itoh, Mathilde Chaineau, et al.. Dynamic interaction of amphiphysin with N-WASP regulates actin assembly.. Journal of Biological Chemistry, American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2009, 284 (49), pp.34244-56. <10.1074/jbc.M109.064204>. <hal-00503018>
  • Lydia Danglot, Thierry Galli. Bric-a-brac at the Golgi.. Developmental Cell, Elsevier, 2009, 16 (6), pp.775-6. <10.1016/j.devcel.2009.06.002>. <hal-00493278>
  • Fabrice Laroche, Nicolas Ramoz, Sophie Leroy, Célia Fortin, Bérangère Rousselot-Paillet, et al.. Polymorphisms of coding trinucleotide repeats of homeogenes in neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders.. Psychiatric Genetics, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2008, 18 (6), pp.295-301. <10.1097/YPG.0b013e3283060fa5>. <hal-00786351>
  • Leif E Sander, Simon P C Frank, Seza Bolat, Ulrich Blank, Thierry Galli, et al.. Vesicle associated membrane protein (VAMP)-7 and VAMP-8, but not VAMP-2 or VAMP-3, are required for activation-induced degranulation of mature human mast cells.. European Journal of Immunology, Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2008, 38 (3), pp.855-63. <10.1002/eji.200737634>. <hal-00786407>
  • Magalie Martineau, Gérard Baux, Thierry Galli, Jean-Pierre Mothet. Confocal imaging and tracking of the exocytotic routes for D-serine-mediated gliotransmission.. Glia, Wiley, 2008, 56 (12), pp.1271-84. <10.1002/glia.20696>. <hal-00291118>
  • Magalie Martineau, Thierry Galli, Gérard Baux, Jean-Pierre Mothet. Confocal imaging and tracking of the exocytotic routes for D-serine-mediated gliotransmission.. Glia, Wiley, 2008, 56 (12), pp.1271-84. <10.1002/glia.20696>. <hal-00332637>
  • Stefan Sikorra, Tina Henke, Thierry Galli, Thomas Binz. Substrate recognition mechanism of VAMP/synaptobrevin cleaving clostridial neurotoxins.. Journal of Biological Chemistry, American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2008, epub ahead of print. <10.1074/jbc.M800610200>. <hal-00284772>
  • Anika Steffen, Gaëlle Le Dez, Renaud Poincloux, Chiara Recchi, Pierre Nassoy, et al.. MT1-MMP-dependent invasion is regulated by TI-VAMP/VAMP7.. Current Biology - CB, Elsevier, 2008, 18 (12), pp.926-31. <10.1016/j.cub.2008.05.044>. <hal-00319422>
  • Anika Steffen, Gaëlle Le Dez, Renaud Poincloux, Chiara Recchi, Pierre Nassoy, et al.. MT1-MMP-dependent invasion is regulated by TI-VAMP/VAMP7. Current Biology - CB, Elsevier, 2008, 18 (12), pp.926-931. <10.1016/j.cub.2008.05.044>. <hal-00821358>
  • Mathilde Chaineau, Lydia Danglot, Véronique Proux-Gillardeaux, Thierry Galli. Role of Hrb in clathrin dependent endocytosis.. Journal of Biological Chemistry, American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2008, epub ahead of print. <10.1074/jbc.M804587200>. <hal-00326921>
  • Thomas Pocard, André Le Bivic, Thierry Galli, Chiara Zurzolo. Distinct v-SNAREs regulate direct and indirect apical delivery in polarized epithelial cells.. Journal of Cell Science, Company of Biologists, 2007, 120 (Pt 18), pp.3309-20. <10.1242/jcs.007948>. <pasteur-00188898>
  • Caroline Dequidt, Lydia Danglot, Philipp Alberts, Thierry Galli, Daniel Choquet, et al.. Fast Turnover of L1 Adhesions in Neuronal Growth Cones Involving Both Surface Diffusion and Exo/Endocytosis of L1 Molecules.. Molecular Biology of the Cell, American Society for Cell Biology, 2007, Sous presse, <10.1091/mbc.E06-12-1101>. <hal-00152327>
  • Lydia Danglot, Thierry Galli. What is the function of neuronal AP-3?. Biology of the Cell, Wiley, 2007, 99 (7), pp.349-61. <10.1042/BC20070029>. <hal-00159121>
  • Véronique Proux-Gillardeaux, Graça Raposo, Theano Irinopoulou, Thierry Galli. Expression of the Longin domain of TI-VAMP impairs lysosomal secretion and epithelial cell migration.. Biology of the Cell, Wiley, 2007, 99 (5), pp.261-71. <10.1042/BC20060097>. <hal-00152244>
  • Ian C Fields, Elina Shteyn, Marc Pypaert, Véronique Proux-Gillardeaux, Richard S Kang, et al.. v-SNARE cellubrevin is required for basolateral sorting of AP-1B-dependent cargo in polarized epithelial cells.. The Journal of Cell Biology, 2007, 177 (3), pp.477-88. <10.1083/jcb.200610047>. <hal-00151899>
  • Anita Scheuber, Rachel Rudge, Lydia Danglot, Graca Raposo, Thomas Binz, et al.. Loss of AP-3 function affects spontaneous and evoked release at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , National Academy of Sciences, 2006, 103 (44), pp.16562-7. <10.1073/pnas.0603511103>. <hal-00110532>
  • Jean-Gaël Barbara, Thierry Galli. Fallait-il ignorer l'hypothèse non-vésiculaire de la neurotransmission ?. Lettre des Neurosciences, 2006, 30, pp.3-6. <hal-00085911>
  • Stefan Sikorra, Tina Henke, Subramanyam Swaminathan, Thierry Galli, Thomas Binz. Identification of the Amino Acid Residues Rendering TI-VAMP Insensitive toward Botulinum Neurotoxin B.. Journal of Molecular Biology, Elsevier, 2006, 357, pp.574-582. <10.1016/j.jmb.2005.12.075>. <hal-00020229>
  • Philipp Alberts, Rachel Rudge, Theano Eirinopoulou, Lydia Danglot, Cécile Gauthier-Rouvière, et al.. Cdc42 and actin control polarized expression of TI-VAMP-vesicles to neuronal growth cones and their fusion with the plasma membrane.. Molecular Biology of the Cell, American Society for Cell Biology, 2006, 17(3), pp.1194-1203. <10.1091/mbc.E05-07-0643>. <hal-00016722>
  • Andrès Alcover, Maria-Isabel Thoulouze, Thierry Galli. Recyclage polarisé et formation de la synapse immune dans les lymphocytes T. médecine/sciences, EDP Sciences, 2005, 21 (1), pp.9-10. <hal-00138077>
  • Véronique Proux-Gillardeaux, Julie Gavard, Theano Irinopoulou, René-Marc Mège, Thierry Galli. Tetanus neurotoxin-mediated cleavage of cellubrevin impairs epithelial cell migration and integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , National Academy of Sciences, 2005, 102, pp.6362-6367. <10.1073/pnas.0409613102>. <hal-00007763>
  • Olivier Thoumine, Edouard Saint-Michel, Caroline Dequidt, Julien Falk, Rachel Rudge, et al.. Weak Effect of Membrane Diffusion on the Rate of Receptor Accumulation at Adhesive Contacts.. Biophysical Journal, Biophysical Society, 2005, 89(5), pp.L40-42. <10.1529/biophysj.105.071688>. <hal-00009552>
  • Vincent Das, Béatrice Nal, Annick Dujeancourt, Maria-Isabel Thoulouze, Thierry Galli, et al.. Activation-induced polarized recycling targets T cell antigen receptors to the immunological synapse; involvement of SNARE complexes.. Immunity, Elsevier, 2004, 20, pp.577-88. <pasteur-00137478>

Communication dans un congrès1 document

  • Magalie Martineau, Stephane Marinesco, Loredano Pollegioni, Thierry Galli, Jean-Pierre Mothet. Calcium-and SNARE protein-dependent release of the gliotransmitter D-serine.. Euroglia 2005 - 7th European Meeting on Glial Function in Health and Disease 17-21 mai, 2005, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 2005. <hal-00118617>

Chapitre d'ouvrage1 document

  • Emmanuel Sotirakis, Thierry Galli. Exocytosis : Lessons from SNARE Mutants and Friends. R. Regazzi. Molecular Mechanisms of Exocytosis, Landes Biosciences/Springer, pp.1-9, 2007, Molecular Biology Intelligence Unit. <hal-00162381>