Number of documents

85

Dr. Marcus Denker — Curriculum Vitae


Journal articles11 documents

  • Nick Papoulias, Marcus Denker, Stéphane Ducasse, Luc Fabresse. End-User Abstractions for Meta-Control: Reifying the Reflectogram. Science of Computer Programming, Elsevier, 2017. ⟨hal-01424787⟩
  • Clément Bera, Eliot Miranda, Marcus Denker, Stéphane Ducasse. Practical Validation of Bytecode to Bytecode JIT Compiler Dynamic Deoptimization. Journal of Object Technology (JOT), JOT, 2016, 15 (2), pp.1:1-26. ⟨10.5381/jot.2016.15.2.a1⟩. ⟨hal-01299371⟩
  • Andrei Chiş, Marcus Denker, Tudor Gîrba, Oscar Nierstrasz. Practical domain-specific debuggers using the Moldable Debugger framework. Computer Languages, Systems and Structures, Elsevier, 2015, 44 (Part A), pp. 89-113. ⟨10.1016/j.cl.2015.08.005⟩. ⟨hal-01247941⟩
  • Jean-Baptiste Arnaud, Stéphane Ducasse, Marcus Denker, Camille Teruel. Handles: Behavior-Propagating First Class References For Dynamically-Typed Languages. Journal of Science of Computer Programming, elsevier, 2015, Science of Computer Programming, 98 (3), pp. 318-338. ⟨10.1016/j.scico.2014.07.011⟩. ⟨hal-01060537v2⟩
  • Nick Papoulias, Noury Bouraqadi, Luc Fabresse, Stéphane Ducasse, Marcus Denker. Mercury: Properties and Design of a Remote Debugging Solution using Reflection. The Journal of Object Technology, Chair of Software Engineering, 2015, 14 (2), pp.36. ⟨10.5381/jot.2015.14.2.a1⟩. ⟨hal-01185730⟩
  • Esteban Allende, Oscar Callau, Johan Fabry, Éric Tanter, Marcus Denker. Gradual Typing for Smalltalk. Science of Computer Programming, Elsevier, 2014, 96 (1), pp.52-69. ⟨10.1016/j.scico.2013.06.006⟩. ⟨hal-00862815⟩
  • Johan Fabry, Romain Robbes, Marcus Denker. DIE: A Domain Specific Aspect Language for IDE Events. Journal of Universal Computer Science, Graz University of Technology, Institut für Informationssysteme und Computer Medien, 2014, 20 (2), pp.135-168. ⟨hal-00936376⟩
  • Mariano Martinez Peck, Noury Bouraqadi, Marcus Denker, Stéphane Ducasse, Luc Fabresse. Marea: An Efficient Application-Level Object Graph Swapper. The Journal of Object Technology, Chair of Software Engineering, 2013, 12 (1), pp.2:1-30. ⟨10.5381/jot.2013.12.1.a2⟩. ⟨hal-00781129⟩
  • Niklaus Haldiman, Marcus Denker, Oscar Nierstrasz. Practical, Pluggable Types for a Dynamic Language. Computer Languages, Systems and Structures, Elsevier, 2009, 35 (2), pp.48-64. ⟨10.1016/j.cl.2008.06.003⟩. ⟨inria-00555441⟩
  • David Roethlisberger, Marcus Denker, Éric Tanter. Unanticipated Partial Behavioral Reflection: Adapting Applications at Runtime. Computer Languages, Systems and Structures, Elsevier, 2008, 34 (2), pp.46-65. ⟨10.1016/j.cl.2007.05.001⟩. ⟨inria-00555557⟩
  • Marcus Denker, Stéphane Ducasse, Éric Tanter. Runtime Bytecode Transformation for Smalltalk. Computer Languages, Systems and Structures, Elsevier, 2006, 32 (2-3), pp.125-139. ⟨10.1016/j.cl.2005.10.002⟩. ⟨inria-00556474⟩

Conference papers42 documents

  • Santiago Bragagnolo, Henrique Rocha, Marcus Denker, Stéphane Ducasse. Ethereum Query Language. WETSEB 2018 - 1st International Workshop on Emerging Trends in Software Engineering for Blockchain, May 2018, Gothenburg, Sweden. ⟨10.1145/3194113.3194114⟩. ⟨hal-01831084⟩
  • Santiago Bragagnolo, Henrique Rocha, Marcus Denker, Stéphane Ducasse. SmartInspect: Solidity Smart Contract Inspector. IWBOSE 2018 - 1st International Workshop on Blockchain Oriented Software Engineering, Mar 2018, Campobasso, Italy. ⟨10.1109/IWBOSE.2018.8327566⟩. ⟨hal-01831075⟩
  • Steven Costiou, Mickael Kerboeuf, Alain Plantec, Marcus Denker. Collectors. Programming Experience 2018 (PX'18), Apr 2018, Nice, France. pp.9, ⟨10.1145/3191697.3214335⟩. ⟨hal-01829183v2⟩
  • Henrique Rocha, Stéphane Ducasse, Marcus Denker, Jason Lecerf. Solidity Parsing Using SmaCC: Challenges and Irregularities. Proceedings of the 12th Edition of the International Workshop on Smalltalk Technologies, Sep 2017, Maribor, Slovenia. pp.2:1--2:9, ⟨10.1145/3139903.3139906⟩. ⟨hal-01651858⟩
  • Clément Béra, Eliot Miranda, Tim Felgentreff, Marcus Denker, Stéphane Ducasse. Sista: Saving Optimized Code in Snapshots for Fast Start-Up. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Managed Languages and Runtimes, Sep 2017, Prague, Czech Republic. pp.1 - 11, ⟨10.1145/3132190.3132201⟩. ⟨hal-01596321⟩
  • Steven Costiou, Mickaël Kerboeuf, Marcus Denker, Alain Plantec. Unanticipated Debugging with Dynamic Layers. LASSY 2017 Live Adaptation of Software SYstems, Apr 2017, Brussels, Belgium. pp.6, ⟨10.1145/3079368.3079391⟩. ⟨hal-01591077⟩
  • Juan Pablo Sandoval Alcocer, Marcus Denker, Alexandre Bergel, Yasett Acurana. Dynamically Composing Collection Operations through Collection Promises. Proceedings of the 11th Edition of the International Workshop on Smalltalk Technologies, ESUG, Aug 2016, Prague, Czech Republic. pp.8:1--8:5, ⟨10.1145/2991041.2991049⟩. ⟨hal-01358347⟩
  • Camille Teruel, Stéphane Ducasse, Damien Cassou, Marcus Denker. Access Control to Reflection with Object Ownership. Dynamic Languages Symposium, Oct 2015, USA, France. pp.168-176, ⟨10.1145/2816707.2816721⟩. ⟨hal-01217041⟩
  • Clément Bera, Marcus Denker. Towards a flexible Pharo Compiler. IWST, ESUG, Sep 2013, Annecy, France. ⟨hal-00862411⟩
  • Juan Pablo Sandoval Alcocer, Alexandre Bergel, Stéphane Ducasse, Marcus Denker. Performance Evolution Blueprint: Understanding the Impact of Software Evolution on Performance. VISSOFT - 1st IEEE Working Conference on Software Visualization, Sep 2013, Eindhoven, Netherlands. pp.1-9, ⟨10.1109/VISSOFT.2013.6650523⟩. ⟨hal-00849004⟩
  • Camille Teruel, Stéphane Ducasse, Marcus Denker. Toward a modularization of Pharo: Analysis of the design space for a new module system.. 9ème édition de la conférence MAnifestation des JEunes Chercheurs en Sciences et Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication - MajecSTIC 2012 (2012), Nicolas Gouvy, Oct 2012, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. ⟨hal-00780293⟩
  • Sergio Castro, Sebastián González, Kim Mens, Marcus Denker. DynamicSchema: a lightweight persistency framework for context-oriented data management. COP '12, ACM, Jun 2012, Beijing, China. pp.5:1--5:6, ⟨10.1145/2307436.2307441⟩. ⟨hal-00720348⟩
  • Nikolaos Papoulias, Noury Bouraqadi, Marcus Denker, Stéphane Ducasse, Luc Fabresse. Towards Structural Decomposition of Reflection with Mirrors. International Workshop on Smalltalk Technologies (IWST 2011), ESUG, Aug 2011, Edingburgh, United Kingdom. ⟨10.1145/2166929.2166941⟩. ⟨inria-00629175⟩
  • Mariano Martinez Peck, Marcus Denker, Stéphane Ducasse, Noury Bouraqadi, Luc Fabresse. Problems and Challenges when Building a Manager for Unused Objects. Smalltalks International Workshop, FAST (Federación Argentina de Smalltalks), Nov 2011, Bernal, Buenos Aires, Argentina. ⟨inria-00635793⟩
  • Marcus Denker, Mariano Martinez Peck, Noury Bouraqadi, Luc Fabresse, Stéphane Ducasse. Efficient Proxies in Smalltalk. International Workshop on Smalltalk Technologies (IWST 2011), ESUG, Aug 2011, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. ⟨inria-00614720⟩
  • Marcus Denker, Jorge Ressia, Orla Greevy, Oscar Nierstrasz. Modeling Features at Runtime. MODELS 2010, Oct 2010, Oslo, Norway. pp.138-152, ⟨10.1007/978-3-642-16129-2_11⟩. ⟨inria-00531045v2⟩
  • Jean-Baptiste Arnaud, Marcus Denker, Stéphane Ducasse, Damien Pollet, Alexandre Bergel, et al.. Read-Only Execution for Dynamic Languages. TOOLS, Jun 2010, Malaga, Spain. ⟨inria-00498377⟩
  • Mariano Martinez Peck, Noury Bouraqadi, Marcus Denker, Stéphane Ducasse, Luc Fabresse. Visualizing Objects and Memory Usage. Smalltalks'2010, Nov 2010, Buenos Ares, Argentina. ⟨inria-00531510⟩
  • Mariano Martinez Peck, Noury Bouraqadi, Marcus Denker, Stéphane Ducasse, Luc Fabresse. Experiments with a Fast Object Swapper. Smalltalks'2010, Nov 2010, Buenos Ares, Argentina. ⟨inria-00531565⟩
  • Stéphane Ducasse, Marcus Denker, Adrian Lienhard. Evolving a reflective language: lessons learned from implementing traits. International Workshop on Smalltalk Technologies (IWST 2009), ESUG, Aug 2009, Brest, France. pp.82-86, ⟨10.1145/1735935.1735949⟩. ⟨inria-00531048v2⟩
  • Gwenaël Casaccio, Damien Pollet, Marcus Denker, Stéphane Ducasse. Object Spaces for Safe Image Surgery. ESUG International Workshop on Smalltalk Technologies (IWST 2009), ESUG, Aug 2009, Brest, France. pp.77-81, ⟨10.1145/1735935.1735948⟩. ⟨inria-00531046v2⟩
  • Stéphane Ducasse, Marcus Denker, Adrian Lienhard. Evolving a Reflective Language. International Workshop on Smalltalk Technologies, ESUG, Aug 2009, Brest, France. pp.82-86, ⟨10.1145/1735935.1735949⟩. ⟨hal-00746130⟩
  • Lukas Renggli, Marcus Denker, Oscar Nierstrasz. Language Boxes: Bending the Host Language with Modular Language Changes.. Software Language Engineering: Second International Conference, SLE 2009, Oct 2009, Denver, United States. pp.274-293, ⟨10.1007/978-3-642-12107-4_20⟩. ⟨inria-00531044⟩
  • Sebastián González, Marcus Denker, Kim Mens. Transactional contexts: harnessing the power of context-oriented reflection.. COP '09: International Workshop on Context-Oriented Programming, ACM, Jul 2009, Genova, Italy. pp.1-6, ⟨10.1145/1562112.1562115⟩. ⟨inria-00531216⟩
  • Marcus Denker, Mathieu Suen, Stéphane Ducasse. The Meta in Meta-object Architectures. TOOLS-EUROPE, Jun 2008, Zurich, Switzerland. pp.218-237, ⟨10.1007/978-3-540-69824-1_13⟩. ⟨inria-00271286⟩
  • Marcus Denker, Orla Greevy, Oscar Nierstrasz. Supporting Feature Analysis with Runtime Annotations. 3rd International Workshop on Program Comprehension through Dynamic Analysis (PCODA 2007), 2007, Vancouver, Canada. pp.29--33. ⟨inria-00555456⟩
  • Marcus Denker, Stéphane Ducasse, Adrian Lienhard, Philippe Marschall. Sub-Method Reflection. TOOLS Europe 2007, ETH Zürich, 2007, Zürich, Switzerland. pp.231-251, ⟨10.5381/jot.2007.6.9.a14⟩. ⟨inria-00556467⟩
  • Martin Von Löwis, Marcus Denker, Oscar Nierstrasz. Context-Oriented Programming: Beyond Layers. International Conference on Dynamic Languages (ICDL 2007), ESUG, 2007, Lugano, Switzerland. ⟨10.1145/1352678.1352688⟩. ⟨inria-00555773⟩
  • Michael Haupt, Robert Hirschfeld, Marcus Denker. Type Feedback for Bytecode Interpreters. ICOOOLPS'2007, 2007, Berlin, Germany. pp.17-22. ⟨inria-00556213⟩
  • Marcus Denker, Tudor Girba, Adrian Lienhard, Oscar Nierstrasz, Lukas Renggli, et al.. Encapsulating and Exploiting Change with Changeboxes. 2007 International Conference on Dynamic Languages (ICDL 2007, ESUG, 2007, Lugano, Switzerland. pp.25-49, ⟨10.1145/1352678.1352681⟩. ⟨inria-00555780⟩
  • Niklaus Haldiman, Marcus Denker, Oscar Nierstrasz. Practical, Pluggable Types. 2007 International Conference on Dynamic Languages (ICDL 2007), ESUG, 2007, Lugano, Switzerland. pp.183-204, ⟨10.1145/1352678.1352690⟩. ⟨inria-00555783⟩
  • Marcus Denker, Orla Greevy, Michele Lanza. Higher Abstractions for Dynamic Analysis. 2nd International Workshop on Program Comprehension through Dynamic Analysis (PCODA 2006), Oct 2006, Benevento, Italy. pp.32-38. ⟨inria-00555673⟩
  • David Roethlisberger, Marcus Denker, Éric Tanter. Unanticipated Partial Behavioral Reflection. 14th International Smalltalk Conference (ISC 2006), ESUG, Sep 2006, Prag, Czech Republic. pp.47-65, ⟨10.1007/978-3-540-71836-9_3⟩. ⟨inria-00555650⟩
  • Alexandre Bergel, Marcus Denker. Prototyping Languages, Related Constructs and Tools with Squeak.. ECOOP'06 Workshop on Revival of Dynamic Languages, AITO, 2006, Nantes, France. ⟨inria-00555724⟩
  • Christoph Hofer, Marcus Denker, Stéphane Ducasse. Design and Implementation of a Backward-In-Time Debugger. NODe 2006, 2006, Erfurt, Germany. pp.17-32. ⟨inria-00555768⟩
  • Oscar Nierstrasz, Marcus Denker, Tudor Girba, Adrian Lienhard. Analyzing, Capturing and Taming Software Change. Workshop on Revival of Dynamic Languages (co-located with ECOOP'06), 2006, Nantes, France. ⟨inria-00555757⟩
  • Marcus Denker, Stéphane Ducasse. Software Evolution from the Field. An Experience Report from the Squeak Maintainers. ERCIM 2006, 2006, Lille, France. pp.81-91, ⟨10.1016/j.entcs.2006.08.003⟩. ⟨inria-00555868⟩
  • Éric Tanter, Kris Gybels, Marcus Denker, Alexandre Bergel. Context-Aware Aspects. 5th International Symposium on Software Composition (SC 2006), 2006, Vienna, Austria. ⟨10.1007/11821946⟩. ⟨inria-00555956⟩
  • Marcus Denker. Squeak and Croquet. LinuxTag 2005, 2005, Karlsruhe, Germany. ⟨inria-00555715⟩
  • Oscar Nierstrasz, Alexandre Bergel, Marcus Denker, Stéphane Ducasse, Markus Gälli, et al.. On the Revival of Dynamic Languages. Software Composition 2005, 2005, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. pp.1-13, ⟨10.1007/11550679_1⟩. ⟨inria-00555914⟩
  • Marcus Denker. Squeak@21c3. 21st Chaos Communication Congress, Chaos Computer Club, Dec 2004, Berlin, Germany. pp.52--59. ⟨inria-00555671⟩
  • Oscar Nierstrasz, Marcus Denker. Supporting Software Change in the Programming Language. OOPSLA Workshop on Revival of Dynamic Languages, ACM, 2004, Vancouver, Canada. ⟨inria-00555696⟩

Books2 documents

  • Andrew Black, Stéphane Ducasse, Oscar Nierstrasz, Damien Pollet, Damien Cassou, et al.. Pharo by Example. Square Bracket Associates, pp.352, 2009, 978-3-9523341-4-0. ⟨inria-00441463⟩
  • Andrew Black, Stéphane Ducasse, Oscar Nierstrasz, Damien Pollet, Damien Cassou, et al.. Squeak by Example. Square Bracket Associates, pp.304, 2007, 978-3-9523341-0-2. ⟨inria-00441576⟩

Book sections5 documents

  • Stéphane Ducasse, Henrique Rocha, Santiago Bragagnolo, Marcus Denker, Clément Francomme. SmartAnvil: Open-Source Tool Suite for Smart Contract Analysis. Blockchain and Web 3.0: Social, economic, and technological challenges, Routledge, 2019. ⟨hal-01940287⟩
  • Christian Denker, Norbert Hartl, Marcus Denker. Kapitel 1: Apps. Christian Solmecke and Juergen Taeger and Thorsten Feldmann. Mobile Apps - Rechtsfragen und rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen, De Gruyter, pp.1-8, 2013, 978-3-11-030503-6. ⟨hal-00865117⟩
  • Norbert Hartl, Christian Denker, Marcus Denker. Kapitel 2: Technische Aspekte. Christian Solmecke and Juergen Taeger and Thorsten Feldmann. Mobile Apps - Rechtsfragen und rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen, De Gruyter, pp.9-24, 2013, 978-3-11-030503-6. ⟨hal-00865116⟩
  • Oscar Nierstrasz, Marcus Denker, Lukas Renggli. Model-Centric, Context-Aware Software Adaptation.. Cheng, Betty and de Lemos, Rogério and Giese, Holger and Inverardi, Paola and Magee, Jeff. Software Engineering for Self-Adaptive Systems, 5525, Springer, pp.128-145, 2009, LNCS, 3642021603. ⟨10.1007/978-3-642-02161-9_7⟩. ⟨inria-00532825⟩
  • Oscar Nierstrasz, Marcus Denker, Tudor Girba, Adrian Lienhard, David Roethlisberger. Change-Enabled Software System. Martin Wirsing and Jean-Pierre Banâtre and Matthias Hölzl. Challenges for Software-Intensive Systems and New Computing Paradigms,, 5380, Springer, pp.64-79, 2008, LNCS, 978-3-540-89436-0. ⟨10.1007/978-3-540-89437-7_3⟩. ⟨inria-00556427⟩

Other publications2 documents

  • Mariano Martinez Peck, Noury Bouraqadi, Stéphane Ducasse, Luc Fabresse, Marcus Denker. Ghost: A Uniform and General-Purpose Proxy Implementation. 2013. ⟨hal-00877757⟩
  • Jean-Baptiste Arnaud, Stéphane Ducasse, Marcus Denker. Handles: Behavior-Propagating First Class References For Dynamically-Typed Languages. 2013. ⟨hal-00881865⟩

Preprints, Working Papers, ...3 documents

  • Nikolaos Papoulias, Noury Bouraqadi, Luc Fabresse, Stéphane Ducasse, Marcus Denker. Mercury: a Model for Live Remote Debugging in Reflective Languages. 2014. ⟨hal-00989294⟩
  • Guido Chari, Diego Garbervetsky, Camillo Bruni, Marcus Denker, Stéphane Ducasse. Waterfall: Primitives Generation on the Fly. 2013. ⟨hal-00871353⟩
  • Adrian Kuhn, David Erni, Marcus Denker. Empowering Collections with Swarm Behavior. 2010. ⟨inria-00523507⟩

Reports19 documents

  • Marcus Denker, Nicolas Anquetil, Stéphane Ducasse, Anne Etien, Damien Pollet. Project-Team RMoD 2018 Activity Report. [Research Report] INRIA. 2019. ⟨hal-02006630⟩
  • Marcus Denker, Nicolas Anquetil, Stéphane Ducasse, Anne Etien, Damien Pollet. Project-Team RMoD (Analyses and Language Constructs for Object-Oriented Application Evolution) 2017 Activity Report. [Research Report] INRIA Lille - Nord Europe. 2018. ⟨hal-01683649⟩
  • Nicolas Anquetil, Marcus Denker, Stéphane Ducasse, Anne Etien, Damien Pollet. Project-Team RMoD 2016 Activity Report. [Research Report] Inria Lille - Nord Europe. 2017. ⟨hal-01444225⟩
  • Santiago Bragagnolo, Henrique Rocha, Marcus Denker, Stéphane Ducasse. SmartInspect: Smart Contract Inspection Technical Report. [Research Report] Inria Lille. 2017. ⟨hal-01671196⟩
  • Marcus Denker, Nicolas Anquetil, Damien Cassou, Stéphane Ducasse, Anne Etien, et al.. Project-Team RMoD 2015 Activity Report. [Other] INRIA Lille - Nord Europe. 2016. ⟨hal-01267026⟩
  • A Bergel, Stéphane Ducasse, Marcus Denker, J Fabry. PLOMO2 Associate Team Final Report. [Research Report] INRIA. 2016. ⟨hal-01389983⟩
  • Marcus Denker, Nicolas Anquetil, Damien Cassou, Stéphane Ducasse, Anne Etien, et al.. Project-Team RMoD 2014 Activity Report . [Research Report] Inria Lille; RMOD. 2015. ⟨hal-01247323⟩
  • Marcus Denker, Nicolas Anquetil, Damien Cassou, Stéphane Ducasse, Anne Etien, et al.. Project-Team RMoD 2013 Activity Report. [Research Report] Inria Lille. 2014. ⟨hal-00936375⟩
  • Alexandre Bergel, Stéphane Ducasse, Marcus Denker, Johan Fabry. PLOMO Associate Team Final Report. [Research Report] 2013. ⟨hal-00871114⟩
  • Stéphane Ducasse, Marcus Denker, Damien Pollet. Pharo's Vision: Goals, Processes, and Development Effort. [Research Report] Inria. 2012. ⟨hal-01879346⟩
  • Nicolas Anquetil, Damien Cassou, Marcus Denker, Stéphane Ducasse, Damien Pollet. Activity Report 2012. Project-Team RMOD. Analyses and Languages Constructs for Object-Oriented Application Evolution. [Research Report] 2012. ⟨hal-00777904⟩
  • Stéphane Ducasse, Nicolas Anquetil, Marcus Denker, Damien Pollet. Project-Team RMoD (Analyses and Language Constructs for Object-Oriented Application Evolution) 2011 Activity Report. [Research Report] 2011. 〈hal-00667079〉
  • Stéphane Ducasse, Nicolas Anquetil, Marcus Denker, Damien Pollet. Project-Team RMoD (Analyses and Language Constructs for Object-Oriented Application Evolution) 2010 Activity Report.. [Research Report] 2010. ⟨hal-00639726⟩
  • Stéphane Ducasse, Nicolas Anquetil, Marcus Denker, Damien Pollet. Project-Team RMoD (Analyses and Language Constructs for Object-Oriented Application Evolution) 2009 Activity Report. [Research Report] 2009. ⟨hal-00639727⟩
  • Camillo Bruni, Toon Verwaest, Marcus Denker. PyGirl: Generating Whole-System VMs from high-level models using PyPy. [Technical Report] 2009. ⟨inria-00556430⟩
  • Oscar Nierstrasz, Marcus Denker, Tudor Girba, Adrian Kuhn, Adrian Lienhard, et al.. Self-aware, Evolving Eternal Systems. [Technical Report] 2008. ⟨inria-00555765⟩
  • Marcus Denker. Erweiterung eines statischen Übersetzers zu einem Laufzeitübersetzungssystem. [Research Report] 2004. ⟨inria-00556434⟩
  • Marcus Denker. Entwurf von Optimierungen für Squeak. [Research Report] 2002. ⟨inria-00556432⟩
  • Marcus Denker. Event und Notification Service in CORBA. [Technical Report] 2000, pp.7-13. ⟨inria-00555820⟩

Theses1 document

  • Marcus Denker. Sub-method Structural and Behavioral Reflection. Computer Science [cs]. Universität Bern, 2008. English. ⟨tel-00555937⟩